700 x 80 WWI - 1:33 - Spoked Wheel Project

Discussion in 'Gallery & Designs' started by Gil, Jan 19, 2007.

  1. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    This will kick off a project to design and build a 700 mm x 80 mm, 1:33 scale, World War I, Fokker wheels for a model that's currently in build.

    Research provided side and profile views necessary to create a 3D visualization of the entire wheel assembly as it will look when constructed from cardstock. The intention is to make the wheel entirely of cardstock save the spokes which will be laced using painted monofilament fishing line. The image below is the visualization of the virtual wheel.

    Next comes the generation of the fixtures and jigs necessary to create the assembly.

    -Gil

    [​IMG]
  2. cgutzmer

    cgutzmer Guest

    This will be good! Will you use Eric's tutorial as a base?
    Chris
  3. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Chris,

    In short, No. Eric's tutorial is by far the best I've seen for small scale types. My method is similar to full scale but with some twists which allow paper to be used instead of a metal alloy. It's actually an interesting engineering problem that took a while to figure out how to get around some of the problems associated with building them out of paper.

    -Gil
  4. Nalla

    Nalla New Member

    Joined:
    Nov 18, 2006
    Messages:
    8
    Likes Received:
    0
    Fantastic Gil, :). I have read Eric's great tutorial, and was playing with upscaling the process. I look forward to this project. :)
  5. Buki

    Buki Member

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2007
    Messages:
    30
    Likes Received:
    0
    According to my opinion, the tyre could consist of concentric graded circles - to laminate the halves, to fix one half with axis into appliance, to stretch and fix the "tinkery" (with persistent tension), glue - fix - wait - release - cut overhung "wire" - finish. The appliance should keep the tyre and axis in proper position and have appropriate number of stretchers around.

    I have one principal suggestion (I am fisher too ;-)) - what about to use twisted fishing line instead of monofilament? I know - monofil is cheap. But it is also a little bit slippy and tensible (or tenuous) => problems with fixing and stability (with time it surely relaxes). Twisted fishing line would be almost non-tensible, stronger, much easier to fix with glue and more stable with time. As I know, such a lines are available down to diameter 0.04 mm (e.g. FireLine crystal). The following text is not an advertisement, only reference: http://www.berkley-fishing.com/cat.php?k=50275&sk=50275 (a full spool is rather expensive, but some salesmen offer also line on yardage).

    A heretic thought - we fishers are using also special twisted micro-wire (at hook for pike, zander,...). But as I know - the available micro-wire use is too thick - twisted line should be better (in glue-adhesion and stability).
  6. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Where I Last Left Off on Spoked Wheel Development

    Hi All,

    The image below is where I left off on the last spoked wheel development. It uses nylon monofilament line for the spoke lacing and I checked it several minutes ago and it is still as tight as the day it was finished (7 Dec 2005). Bonding bite of the monofilament is accomplished by running the line through fine grit sandpaper several times. I don't want to get ahead of the build by explaining the technique out of sequence so I'll try to refrain from the urge to do so.

    Hope all will enjoy this development thread and more importantly use this technique for more effective models toward the fuller enjoyment of cardmodeling.

    -Gil

    [​IMG]
  7. Buki

    Buki Member

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2007
    Messages:
    30
    Likes Received:
    0
    I do not want to quarrel - nylon monofil should have good permanent elasticity and maybe sufficient low deformation by tension with time. Twisted fishing line is surely less elastic, but [I suppose] does not need to roughen - a glue steeps into bonding part. Please excuse my heretic theses - I just want to contribute from my "cross-platform" experience of fishing and fly-tying ;-)
  8. Bluenoser

    Bluenoser Member

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2006
    Messages:
    191
    Likes Received:
    0
    That's a fabulous looking tire (tyre).
  9. rlwhitt

    rlwhitt Active Member

    Joined:
    Aug 25, 2006
    Messages:
    1,100
    Likes Received:
    0
    That's unreal Gil - actually, it looks totally REAL. That can't be paper!

    Rick
  10. cgutzmer

    cgutzmer Guest

    SUPERB! I cant wait to see the process that created it!
    Chris
  11. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Rim Forming Trial

    Building a "round", strong rim out of paper is a major issue in this medium. A flat ring is fairly easy to roll but doesn't look anything like the original formed rims and isn't stiff enough to resist deformation from lacing forces.

    The following is a trial layup to test an idea that I've been developing over the last year or so. It consists of thin layers of vellum smothered in PVA (White Glue) then wrapped and burnished around a form. The result was painted flat black as the vellum I used was an airbrush test piece and had graffiti all over it (waist not, want not). It's over scale by about 9 mm but is close enough to prove out the technique which has many other uses outside this narrow interpretation.

    Next is the design and fabrication of the fixtures to produce the wheel.

    -Gil

    [​IMG]
  12. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Update

    After looking at the original design I realized that there were too many spokes. It was redone to correct the problem and to show the correct lacing pattern. The Continental logo was applied to the sidewall to see how it looks.

    Next stop building fixtures.

    -Gil

    [​IMG]
  13. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Fixtures Build

    Found a little time to get the fixture design finished and built. The following image shows the Rim Form, the Rim Gauge, the Lacing Frame and the Tire Turning Jig. The Rim Form is the tool which will form the rim when wrapped in tracing vellum. The Rim Gauge is used to determine the correct depth and form of the Rim Form tool when the channel is lathed on a Dremel Tool. The Lacing Frame holds the rim while it's being laced with spokes. The Tire Turning Jig holds the laminated tire while it is shape sanded on a Dremel Tool. Note the use of the 1/8 inch shaft mandrels. They are indispensable as a handle and in forming the fixtures. The overall dimensions are fairly small. The scale tire diameter is 21.21 mm. I've been thinking about using a fly tying vice to hold the fixture while lacing the spokes.

    The materials used are 0.125 inch MDF and 1.0 mm x 0.5 inch nails. A printout of all the shapes was bonded (3M 77 Spray) to the MDF and all centers started with a pin in a pin vise. The center holes were drilled out with a 0.5 mm drill to accommodate the center pin of an Olfa hole cutter. The circles were then cut out by switching sides occasionally till the two cuts met and the piece freed from the stock. Use fresh, sharp blades or sharpen them to razor sharpness for this task. Sand any cutting imperfections and drill out the appropriate center holes to accommodate the Dremel Mandrels. Mount each in mandrel in the Dremel Tool and sand to exact dimensions (a digital caliper is handy for this). This does not include the Lacing Frame. I over sanded the Rim Forming Tool and had to make up diameter with Acrylic Hard Modeling Paste (that's the white stuff in the image). The Rim Gauge is bonded to 1.0 mm chipboard and precisely cutout. I used a hacksaw blade to cut the depth and flat of the "V" notch followed by widening the slanted walls with a rifling file. Check often using the Rim Gauge to check the accuracy of your progress. Make sure to make a mark across both Rim Form halves so that they can be realigned exactly when remounted on the mandrel. A thick coat of Bees Wax made into a paste by mixing with paint thinner was applied and melted in with heat. 1.15 mm clearance holes were then drilled through the Lacing Form (use the pin vise to center punch the drill start holes). 0.5 inch x 1.0 mm wire nails were then inserted and cut to length. This was followed by gluing them all in place using CA. The tops were then sanded to a uniform height and sharp edges removed with a Dremel Tool rotary stainless steel brush.

    Next is to start the build of the spoked wheel...,

    -Gil

    [​IMG]
  14. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    First Rim Build

    Couldn't resist the temptation to try building a rim...,

    The Rim Form was wrapped with plastic wrap followed by the application of the rim forming strips soaked in PVA. Need to remember to seal the inkjet ink next run (it bleeds otherwise). Lay-up was worked with a burnishing tool and left on a radiant heater to quick dry. The mold was pried open, the plastic wrap removed and rim popped out. The rim was dry sanded with 220 grit sandpaper to clean up the rim sides. It was then painted flat black.

    The image shows the rim mounted on the Lacing Frame to make sure that it fits. The dime in the background is for size comparison.

    Next, Drilling the Rim...,

    -Gil

    [​IMG]
  15. Amazyah

    Amazyah Senior Member

    Joined:
    Mar 1, 2006
    Messages:
    2,543
    Likes Received:
    0
    You sir, are a genius!
    It is a pleasure to watch you work.

    Another masterpiece in the making!

    Russell
  16. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Intermediate Results

    Started the build with the above fixtures and jigs and found that you don't really need them all or more accurately a simpler process was derived making the Rim Fixture superfluous (It's way hard to build anyway). Reverting to the style of construction as detailed by Harry Woodman will work for the way we generally build wheels. I'll go into that process further as it's refined.

    Don't look at the "tire" in the image below as it's not correct in the width (don't ask...,), it has an unsanded layer of hard acrylic modeling paste on its surface and the tire halves were misaligned when they were glued together (another slight dial in tweak to the technique). What's missing is the rim which will be added in the next incarnation after a slight modification to the build fixture. It's pretty easy to make them which will come as a surprise to anyone who's actually tried making them. The diameter is a tad over 21 mm.

    Till next...,

    -Gil

    [​IMG]
  17. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Lacing Fixture & Assembly Technique Revision

    As described earlier the Lacing Fixture has undergone modifications which reflect Harry Woodman's design. Major differences are that the "tire" is made out of laminated paper and is the load bearer (instead of the rim); the hub is centered with an axial pin which has the additional duty of being the fixtures handle. This differs somewhat from Eric Goedkoops design wherein the tire is "wound" paper and the rim is the load bearer (for the lacing operation that is) and the hub is left floating. These new modifications make lacing and assembling the wheel fairly easy with repeatable results. The rim is applied after the tire halves are joined clamping the spoke system in place. The rims aren't really needed but do improve the look of the wheel. This system can be adopted not only to different lacing patterns but also to offset rim spoking patterns with the use of an insert between the two tire halves. It is also scalable both up and down. The image below is a render of the "new and improved" spoked wheel building technique. Notice also the lack of MDF in this revision. Yep, it's all cardboard...,

    Till next..., -Gil

    [​IMG]
  18. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Lacing Tool Built

    The design was printed out on plain copy paper. The top layer was bonded to a three-ply of 3M 77 Spray bonded 1 mm cardboard. The bottom was bonded to a two ply 1 mm layup. An Olfa circle cutter was used to cutout the parts and the indents punched out with a Fiskars 0.125" x 0.25" hole punch. The bottom was carefully centered on the top part and glued with PVA. The "axle" a la handle was turned on a Dremel tool from a length of bamboo skewer and glued with CA. The wooden handled pin vise is a convenient handle for the Fixture.

    The method for turning the tires is next...,

    Till next...., -Gil

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
  19. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Tire Turning Tool

    Revision 2 of the Tire Turning Tool is shown below with two turned tire halves. Note the alignment marks on the tire half on the right which are on both halves so that they can be aligned when assembled. The turning tool was prepared from MDF and has the same mounting diameter as the tires inner aspect. The tire half is pressed firmly against the back shoulder before shape sanding begins on the Dremel tool. Each tire half was prepared from two layers of 1 mm cardboard. Both were dipped in nitrate dope to help stiffen the paper and to aid sanding. Lacquer or Lacquer Sanding Sealer will also work just as well.

    Hub wrapping is next.

    Till Next..., -Gil

    [​IMG]
  20. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2004
    Messages:
    1,981
    Likes Received:
    0
    Hub and Lacing Fixture Addition

    The hub design was modified slightly and now matches Eric Goedkoops design. Making 3 mm washers is doable but requires too much practice to do well. It's rolled with 25% cotton vellum tracing paper which retains much of its strength when wet. A drill bit (2 mm) reverse mounted in a pin vise for ease of handling was used as the rolling mandrel. Make sure not to get any glue on the drill shaft by rolling one turn before applying glue (otherwise it will stick to the drill shaft). Keep a small container of water and a paper towel available to wet and/or de-stick your fingers during the rolling process. Roll as accurately as possible with the aim at keeping the shoulder as sharp as is possible. The shoulder supports the spoke lacing and needs to be kept as sharp as possible to prevent the spokes from slipping off it when lacing the wheel.

    A small change to the Lacing Fixture was the addition of centering cylinder that keeps the tire from wandering too far during the lacing process. Previously I tried using Tack-It-Over-and_Over to keep the tire centered but found the centering cylinder a much better solution.

    This may be getting ahead of the sequence a little but a slightly modified technique was developed to make split rims for the wheel. Happily the technique worked out better than hoped for, a rare treat in this type of developmet. This will be covered after the wheel is laced and the tire halves joined which is next.

    Till Next..., -Gil

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]